Synchronization and AI Questions Answered

December 2, 2013

The other week we asked if you had any additional questions for Dr. Cliff Lamb regarding synchronization.  Below is his response to the question.

You can review previous posts here.

Q.) After starting a group of heifers on the 33 day TAI protocol, it was discovered that we need to breed 1 day early. Is it better to remove the CIDR on day 13 or give PGF 15 days(vs 16) after CIDR removal? How much would either change decrease or expected conception rate?

A.) There is no comparative data to know if there would be a decrease in fertility by limiting the CIDR to 13 days or reducing the interval from CIDR removal to 15 days.  However, I do not believe the fertility will decrease sufficiently with either option in a manner that it is noticeable to a producer.  However, given this scenario, I would elect to reduce the length of the CIDR to 13 days rather than reducing the interval from CIDR removal to PGF to 15 days.

 

Special thanks to Cliff Lamb and if you have further questions please send them our way and we will get them answered.

Cliff Lamb, Ph. D , is currently the Assistant Director and Professor at the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center in Marianna, Florida.  He graduated with a B.S. in Animal Science at Middle Tennessee State University. He received his M.S in 1996 and Ph. D. in 1998 at Kansas State University.  As Assistant Director of the North Florida Research and Education Center he oversees one of the largest beef cattle feed efficiency facilities in the world.  Dr. Lamb oversees a research program that focuses on applied reproductive physiology in beef cattle emphasizing efficient management systems for replacement heifers and postpartum cows. A primary research focus has been on the development of practical and economical estrous synchronization protocols for beef cows and heifers. He has also published numerous research articles on the use of ultrasound technology for reproductive management of beef cattle, and has a strong research background in embryo transfer technologies.  He is author of more than 60 refereed journal articles, 3 chapters in texts, and more than 200 presentations and articles in other scientific and popular press.

 

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Fall Breeding Season Is Here

November 13, 2013

It’s that time of year again, fall breeding season! If you’re a fall calver and missed our spring blog series, synchronization Q&A with Dr. Cliff Lamb, here is your chance!

You can get a refresher on the previous series by clicking here. We received such good feed back, we’re opening it up again, and Dr. Lamb has graciously agreed to answer any further questions you have. If you have a synchronization question, here is your chance to get a response from a leading expert on beef cattle reproductive technologies.

Please post any questions in the comment section below by Wednesday, November 20, 2013 and we’ll have Dr. Lamb answer them.

Cliff Lamb, Ph. D , is currently the Assistant Director and Professor at the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center in Marianna, Florida.  He graduated with a B.S. in Animal Science at Middle Tennessee State University. He received his M.S in 1996 and Ph. D. in 1998 at Kansas State University.  As Assistant Director of the North Florida Research and Education Center he oversees one of the largest beef cattle feed efficiency facilities in the world.  Dr. Lamb oversees a research program that focuses on applied reproductive physiology in beef cattle emphasizing efficient management systems for replacement heifers and postpartum cows. A primary research focus has been on the development of practical and economical estrous synchronization protocols for beef cows and heifers. He has also published numerous research articles on the use of ultrasound technology for reproductive management of beef cattle, and has a strong research background in embryo transfer technologies.  He is author of more than 60 refereed journal articles, 3 chapters in texts, and more than 200 presentations and articles in other scientific and popular press.

Highlights from Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle Symposium 2013

October 22, 2013

Each year the Beef Reproduction Task Force and Beef Reproduction Leadership Team hold conference proceedings to present the latest research and value of synchronization in beef cattle.  Complete list of topics, speakers and summaries can be found here on the ARSBC News Room website (2013).

ABS Global strongly believes in the value of synchronization for beef cattle production and profitability.  A summary of key topics and take home messages follow.

Provided by Matthew Drebing, ABS Representative

  • Fixed-time AI protocols are more reliable than ever, and there really isn’t a good excuse anymore to not utilize AI; time, labor, expense, and lack of facilities can all be overcome
  • Producers have to be 90% accurate in their heat detection to achieve same accuracy of a fixed-time AI protocol
  • A producer can front-load the calving season with fixed-time AI, accounting for up to 38 lbs. difference in weaning weight
  • Errors in frozen semen handling can be more common and costly than handlers consider. Brad Stroud, DVM, Stroud Veterinary Embryo Services, Inc , emphasized the importance of keeping the temperature of straws below -130°C at all times. Each time cells are exposed or re-exposed temperatures higher than -130°C, ice crystals in the cells rearrange, leading to damaged membranes, which increases fertilization failure. Stroud also emphasized exchanging semen and going up and down within the neck of tank increases loss of semen quality. “It can only take 10 seconds in the neck of a half-filled Dewar for the internal temperature of a frozen semen straw to reach -100°C.” Stroud also emphasized the importance of quality semen from reputable large scale bull studs to ensure quality of handling and product.
  • Larry Corah, Vice President of supply development for Certified Angus Beef LLC., highlighted the demand for premium-Choice and Prime is high and changing the market place. Corah also emphasized use of AI with proven genetics can help producers obtain higher quality levels that are capturing premiums
  • Steve Hopkins, Virginia Cooperative Extension, in his talk about “How do I profit from improved reproduction” listed the ability to utilize AI to create uniformity as a way to create value in heifers, cows, and calves
  • Randall Hinshaw, DVM.,  Ashby Embryo, provided additional reasons and support for rectal ultrasound; listing “Why Ultrasound:  more accurate, less invasive, confirm fetal viability, diagnose pregnancy earlier (25 days), diagnose fetal anomalies, understanding follicular dynamics, assess ovarian status before breeding AI

ABS offers expert knowledge to match synchronization systems to best fit your specific needs. You can confidently look to ABS Professionals to assist and help meet your operations’ needs at any herd size.  Contact ABS today to discuss options for your herd.

Complete Sire Listing


Spring 2013 Focal Point Online

April 4, 2013

We sent the Focal Point to the printer this morning, but you can view an online version here before printing.

In this issue:

  • April Savings Special
  • exciting new sires added to the lineup this spring
  • leading influential sires
  • ABS Customer Spotlight focusing on feed efficiency 

SPRING13_FP_COVERComplete Sire Listing


Synchronization Questions, Part 2 – Heifers

March 21, 2013

Welcome back.  Today is a continuation of the Beef Cattle Synchronization Q & A with Cliff Lamb, Ph. D., and will focus on heifer specific questions.  You can view Part 1 here.

Q 1.) What % conception or success rate can herd owners anticipate on timed AI for beef heifers?

A.) A realistic goal for pregnancy rates in beef heifers is about 55%.  In herds with high cycling rates and that are well managed you may be able to achieve as high as 65% (sometimes higher), but there also will be the herds that will have pregnancy rates somewhere in the 40 to 45% range.  Take a look at the data that we have from 12 locations with timed AI in heifers using CO-Synch+CIDR.  Notice that most herds had pregnancy rates around 55%, with a few high and a few low.

Q 2.) Which protocol for heifers has better results: one with a CIDR® or MGA?

A.) In general the 14-day CIDR protocol has had slightly better pregnancy rates than the MGA-PG protocols.  However, if fed correctly and managed well, the MGA protocols work effectively, but require good feed management. Both of these protocols generally will more consistently give greater pregnancy rates than the short-term CIDR protocols, such as the 7-day CO-Synch+CIDR protocol.

Q 3.) Is pelvic scoring a good thing before breeding heifers? Should it be necessary? What if a heifer is already cycling but her pelvic score isn’t big enough, should I go ahead and still synchronize and breed her?

A.) Pelvic measurements assist in culling heifers that have excessively small pelvic areas.  This is a good practice to identify those heifers that may have small pelvic areas and remove them from the breeding herd before putting resources into estrous synchronization and AI.  However, it is important that a skilled technician provide the pelvic measurements to ensure that you cull the correct females.

Q 4.) If heifers are 16+ months and I haven’t observed them cycling yet, should I start them on a synchronization protocol?

A.) This depends! If the heifers are nutritionally deprived then estrous synchronization would not be a good idea.  The first step would be to obtain reproductive tract scores to determine if the reproductive tracts are developed enough to respond to estrous synchronization.  If more than 50% of the heifers have reproductive tracts that are sufficiently developed then estrous synchronization can be implemented; however, if the reproductive tracts are under-developed then it would be wise to consider feeding the heifers an improved diet for a period of time before initiating estrous synchronization.

Q 5.) Which protocol is best for heifers not observed cycling yet?

A.) The long-term protocols, such as the 14-day CIDR and MGA-PG protocols would be most desirable.  These systems stimulate heifers to cycle at least once before AI and will ‘kick-start’ non-cycling heifers to start cycling.

Q 6.) If a heifer is of breeding age, how many days after I observe heat can I start a synchronization protocol?

A.) If you cannot AI her 12 to 16 hours after seeing her in heat then synchronization is an option.  Depending on the system will be an indicator of when to start this system; however, a good rule of thumb would be to start a new system at about 6 to 8 days after she was in heat.

Q 7.) Would you heat detect and breed heifers or use a fixed time AI to get the best pregnancy rate results? If you follow the heat detection and don’t observe 100% in standing heat would you still breed the remaining with the fixed time AI protocol and shot of GnRH?

A.) In most cases I would recommend fixed-time AI (TAI) over heat detection because you will get more total females pregnant compared to only inseminating heifers that you detect in heat – whether observed or not, by breeding her you at least give her a chance to become pregnant vs. no insemination.  If you use a heat detect and TAI protocol where you heat detect for 72 to 84 hours and then TAI any heifers you do not detect in heat, this would give you the greatest pregnancy rates.  Therefore, it is advisable to use a clean-up TAI if you plan to heat detect.

Q 8.) Is there any benefit to giving a GnRH shot 7-10 days after finishing the MGA in that protocol?

A.) Actually it does not help with fertility to administer GnRH 7 to 10 days after MGA removal or CIDR removal in the long-term protocols. In addition, administering GnRH 7 to 10 days after AI in either protocol has not been shown to improve fertility either.

Q 9.) I have to move heifers to summer pasture post breeding – what is the best time frame after insemination to do so?

A.) Plan to move heifers between 1 and 7 days after AI, but also be sure that the heifers have dry feed (grain or hay) available when they first go onto pasture, otherwise they may experience a decrease in nutrient intake that will affect fertility.

Q 10.) I am only going to synchronize and AI one time before turning out a bull. Can I turn out a bull immediately after breeding?  Wouldn’t it be better to turn the bull out immediately incase a heifer comes into heat within a day of AI, instead of waiting until her next cycle and then having calves different ages?

A.) This is not a straight forward question to answer.  If it is most important to determine whether the calf is pregnant to AI (such as purebred operations) then it would be advisable to wait at least 10 days after AI; however, in most commercial operations a live calf is just as important and it would be wise to turn a clean-up bull in with the herd 12 to 24 hours after AI. In this case there may be a small percentage (< 2%) of calves that could be sired by the clean-up bull that may appear to be sired by AI. In most cases, it would be recommended to turn a bull in shortly after AI rather than waiting.

Q 11.) Is giving first calf heifer PGF a week prior to her scheduled calve date okay? Will it cause her to calve early to a lighter calf and help dystocia?

A.) No, administering PGF that late in gestating likely will have no effect on moving the calving date.  At this stage of pregnancy the placenta is the organ secreting the most progesterone, not the corpus luteum (CL).  Therefore, even if you eliminate the CL with PGF the placenta will continue secreting progesterone until the fetus initiates the calving process.

Q 12.) What is the best protocol if you need to abort a heifer depending on how far she is bred?

A.) This all depends on the stage of pregnancy.  It is always advisable to contact a veterinarian first when considering terminating a pregnancy in heifers. Heifers pregnant for less than 150 days will likely respond to an injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF).  Heifers pregnant more than 150 days may or may not respond to PGF.  Other alternatives after 150 days are available, but producers should contact a veterinarian for options.

Q 13.) Do I follow heifer or cow protocols for a 1st calf heifer?

A.) A rule of thumb is to treat anything that has given birth to a calf as a cow and anything that has not given birth as a heifer, regardless of their age.  Therefore, a 1st calf heifer would be regarded as a cow when it comes to estrous synchronization.

Have more questions? There is still time to submit your question in the comments section of the blog for Dr. Lamb to answer.

View the 2013 Synchronization Protocols.

GIVEAWAY! – Subscribe to the ABS Beef Blog and you will be entered for an ABS GIVEAWAY! Winner will be selected March 28, 2013.

 

Cliff Lamb, Ph. D , is currently the Assistant Director and Professor at the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center in Marianna, Florida.  He graduated with a B.S. in Animal Science at Middle Tennessee State University. He received his M.S in 1996 and Ph. D. in 1998 at Kansas State University.  As Assistant Director of the North Florida Research and Education Center he oversees one of the largest beef cattle feed efficiency facilities in the world.  Dr. Lamb oversees a research program that focuses on applied reproductive physiology in beef cattle emphasizing efficient management systems for replacement heifers and postpartum cows. A primary research focus has been on the development of practical and economical estrous synchronization protocols for beef cows and heifers. He has also published numerous research articles on the use of ultrasound technology for reproductive management of beef cattle, and has a strong research background in embryo transfer technologies.  He is author of more than 60 refereed journal articles, 3 chapters in texts, and more than 200 presentations and articles in other scientific and popular press.

Synchronization Questions, Part 1

March 19, 2013

Synchronization of beef cows goes hand in hand with AI. The highly researched,  proven, and improved protocols released each year from the Beef Reproduction Task Force and Beef Reproduction Leadership Team have had a highly positive influence on beef cattle AI success.  ABS Global, Inc., strongly believes in the value of synchronization for beef cattle production and profitability, but we also understand and welcome questions regarding protocols, and it also happens that things can go wrong from time to time.

This series of posts are to help answer some of those commonly asked questions and scenarios for the 2013 synchronization protocols.  Starting with general questions today and followed by heifer and cow specific questions.

ABS is pleased to work with Cliff Lamb, Ph.D., Professor & Extension Beef Cattle Specialist North Florida Research & Education Center in the Department of Animal Science, University of Florida.  Cliff also serves on the Beef Reproduction Task Force.  We’ve turned to Cliff to help answer the questions below.  This is a 3-part series and will follow with both heifer and cow specific questions.

Q1.) Is there a problem with vaccinating and putting a CIDR® in the same day?

A.) This is a tough question to answer.  Usually with a killed vaccine there is no issue, but we mostly recommend vaccinations be modified live vaccines because they are more effective.  In this case we generally recommend the vaccination to occur at least three weeks before you inject a PGF injection.  For some reason the vaccine seems to affect the response of the corpus luteum to respond to PGF.  However, there is no negative effect or interaction with a CIDR. 

So, if this question is about the short term protocols then I would suggest that they not vaccinate females at CIDR insertion since the females will be receiving PGF within 10 days. 

Alternatively, if the system used is a 14-day CIDR system (most often used in heifers) then vaccinating at CIDR insertion would be fine.  In fact something I would recommend because it means you can do two things at the same time.

2.) If a CIDR® is lost, would you recommend giving another shot of GnRH and re-inserting CIDR® (as Zoetis suggests), or keeping her with the original synchronization group and breeding at the same time (assume there is no way of knowing whether the CIDR was lost day 1 or day 7)?

A.) I would definitely recommend the later option – just keep her with the original group and TAI her at the same time as the rest of the group.  If the CIDR  is lost sometime during synchronization (which happens in about 1-3% of cases in beef cattle) essentially you have turned the system into the CO-Synch system without a CIDR, so the chances are good that the cow will still be synchronized.  However, if you or the producer have the ability to heat detect – keep an eye on the cow and if she comes into heat before 48 hours after CIDR removal then AI her using the am-pm rule, otherwise just treat her the same as the other cows.

Q3.) If you know what day a CIDR® is lost does it matter what steps you take?  Say between days 1-3 and 3-7? If she loses a CIDR® on day 5 is it better to restart or try following the remaining protocol and breeding?

A.) This may be more work that it is worth; however, if you know which cow lost the CIDR and would like to reinsert the CIDR feel free to do so.  This would be more effective to have the CIDR in place for the last 2 or 3 days of the protocol when the cow may come into heat.

Q4.) Gave both GnRH and Lutalyse® the day I pulled the CIDR.  What is your advice for this situation?

A.) Not much that you can do if GnRH and PGF are given at the same time. My bet is few females will show heat, and if they do they can be bred.   The question is to know when to restart the protocol. I would immediately reinsert the CIDR after they have been cleaned and use the day that the cows received both GnRH and PGF as the first day of the protocol.  That way 7 days after the injections were given you can remove the CIDR and administer PGF alone and continue with your original protocol.  However, you will be delayed by 7 days.

Q5.) Administered GnRH the day of CIDR® removal instead of PGF?

A.) Use exactly the same approach as that expressed in Question #4.

Q 6.) Administered PGF at time of putting CIDR® in instead of GnRH?

A.) This is a common problem and the answer depends on when the error was discovered.

If the error was discovered within four days of administering PGF then go ahead and administer GnRH at that time and leave the CIDR in the cows.  Use this new date as the start of the protocol and remove the CIDR 7 days after the GnRH shot followed by PGF at removal of CIDR.

Very often the error is discovered only when the CIDR is being removed.  In that case the solution is described in Questions #4.

Q 7.) What should I do if at the time of breeding I notice a CIDR® that got left in – PGF still administered per the protocol?

A.) This happens occasionally.  In this case if you are using a TAI system, go ahead and remove the CIDR and inseminate the cow, plus administer GnRH.  There is a chance the cow will become pregnant. An alternative is to remove the CIDR and wait until the cow expresses estrus and then AI her using the AM/PM rule. I would almost always use the first option.

Q 8.) Is there any benefit and/or detriment to inserting a CIDR® after breeding? Won’t it help to keep the female from returning to heat?

A.) The only real benefit of reinserting a CIDR would be to resynchronize cows that did not become pregnant to the AI.  In this case insert the CIDR at 12 to 14 days after AI and remove the CIDR at 19 or 20 days after AI.  About 70 to 80% of the nonpregnant cows will express estrus in 3 days.  Inserting a CIDR at any other time does not help improve pregnancy rates at all!

Q 9.) What kind of results can I expect if I wash and re-use a CIDR® for second application?

A.) The issue with reuse of a CIDR is the potential for enhanced vaginitis (infection in the vagina) or the spread of a disease; therefore it is not recommended to reuse CIDRs.  Some research has indicated that high pressure steam sterilization can effectively sterilize the CIDR and progesterone from the CIDR would effectively provide sufficient progesterone for estrous synchronization.

Q 10.) If I observe a female in standing heat but am planning on fixed TAI for the whole group should I separate the ones showing heat and breed with the AM/PM rule or leave them in the group and AI everything fixed TAI? If I do separate and breed off standing heats is the shot of GnRH still necessary?

A.) If a female is detected in estrus then she may be inseminated using the AM/PM rule for best results.  If the cow is detected in heat and inseminated then there is no reason to administer GnRH to that female. 

Q 11.) Do estrous synchronization “drugs” (all approved) make cattle ineligible for drug free labeling?

A.) It depends on the label.  In some cases these products would not be eligible and in others cases they are eligible.  Producers should do their due diligence if they aim to market their cattle in a drug free program.  It is important to note that the products used for estrous synchronization are essentially similar to what the females naturally produces.  In all cases these products are metabolized fairly quickly and are usually out of the system within a couple of hours.

Q 12.) Do estrous synchronization “drugs” disqualify cattle for all natural and organic programs?

A.) As noted with Questions #10, for natural it depends on the label.  In some cases these products would not be eligible and in others cases they are eligible.  Producers should do their due diligence if they aim to market their cattle in a drug free program. 
For organic, estrous synchronization products usually disqualify females from these programs.

Q 13.) Is there any difference in the name brand variations of synchronization hormones? Cystorelin® vs. OvaCyst® and Lutalyse® vs. Estrumate® for example.

A.) Regardless of whether it is GnRH or PGF, in beef cattle, there has not been a comprehensive study completed to demonstrate that one product is more effective than another.  At this point, the best advice is that producers should utilize the least expensive product.

Q 14.) Which fixed time protocol is the most cost effective for synchronizing large groups without sacrificing conception rates?

A.) This is not an easy question, because all protocols have merits for various reasons.

For cows, the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR would be the easiest to use and is slightly less expensive than the 5-day CO-Synch system, but pregnancy rates may be slightly lower (about 3 to 5%).  Nonetheless, I would likely lean towards the 7-day CO-Synch system.

For heifers, the 14-day CIDR protocol is the protocol that would likely be preferred, but in some cases the MGA-PGF system may be less expensive with good pregnancy results.

Do you have a specific heifer or cow synchronization question you want Cliff to answer? Post your question to the comments section of this blog and we’ll try include them in the later posts.

You can view the 2013 Synchronization Protocols here.

GIVEAWAY! –  Subscribe to the blog (found on the right hand side of page) and you will be entered for an ABS GIVEAWAY!

References to previous ABS BEEF Blog Post on Synchronization of Beef Cattle found here.

Cliff Lamb, Ph. D , is currently the Assistant Director and Professor at the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center in Marianna, Florida.  He graduated with a B.S. in Animal Science at Middle Tennessee State University. He received his M.S in 1996 and Ph. D. in 1998 at Kansas State University.  As Assistant Director of the North Florida Research and Education Center he oversees one of the largest beef cattle feed efficiency facilities in the world.  Dr. Lamb oversees a research program that focuses on applied reproductive physiology in beef cattle emphasizing efficient management systems for replacement heifers and postpartum cows. A primary research focus has been on the development of practical and economical estrous synchronization protocols for beef cows and heifers. He has also published numerous research articles on the use of ultrasound technology for reproductive management of beef cattle, and has a strong research background in embryo transfer technologies.  He is author of more than 60 refereed journal articles, 3 chapters in texts, and more than 200 presentations and articles in other scientific and popular press.


Highlights from Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle Symposium

December 7, 2012

Each year, the Beef Reproduction Task Force and Beef Reproduction Leadership Team hold conference proceedings to present the latest research and value of synchronization in beef cattle.  Complete list of topics, speakers and summaries can be found here on the ARSBC News Room website.

ABS Global strongly believes in the value of synchronization for beef cattle production and profitability.  A summary of key topics and take home messages from our Beef Team members follow.

Provided by Dwight Williams, ABS Beef Business Development Manager:

  • The ever-lasting application of the Equation of Reproduction and how it can serve as a guide to reproductive success
  • The economic advantages to having 50% + of your females pregnant on day 1 of the breeding season with fixed-time AI
  • The fact that “timing of insemination” can actually scare producers away from AI
  • The greater use of fixed-time AI truly allows for professional people to be involved to assure compliance and insemination expertise creating pregnancies
  • Blood and milk progesterone pregnancy testing is becoming ever more applicable, not just in dairy, but beef as well to potentially allow for greater opportunity for more than 1 AI service for beef females before turning out a bull

Provided by Merlyn Sandbulte, ABS District Business Manger:

  • The economics of genetics  combined with the use of reproductive tools is too overwhelming to ignore
  • The obstacle is no longer economics but uptake and acceptance of the technology
  • We have the people to solve the obstacles of time, labor and facilities; but must bridge the acceptance gap with the proven economic advantages
  • The use of progesterone testing and ultrasound pregnancy testing by technicians allow for quicker identification of open females.  This allows for quicker re-synchronization and/or re-insemination and possibly the elimination of bulls for some situations.  Eliminating the need for cleanup bulls in some situations alone provides enough economic incentive at today’s bull prices.

Provided by Larry Rowden, ABS District Business Manger:

  • The continued evidence that early calving cows are more profitable and more likely to breed back.
  • Using reproductive technologies such as synchronization and AI to proven calving ease sires can help make certain that heifers calve early in the calving season with a minimum of difficulty.
  • Cliff Lamb presented information that shows the use of synchronization and fixed-time AI creates a positive economic impact by increasing weaning rate and weaning weight.

Provided by Todd Sears, ABS Beef AI Sales Director:

  • Managing reproduction is vital to profitability of an operation.  It sets a producer up to be profitable and gain value in calf crop.  Managing reproduction is a critical control point.
  • Heifer synchronization and AI positions her for lifetime success – synchronization of heifers should be a standard practice in today’s market.
  • Synchronization, regardless of natural service or AI needs to be on the list of common management practices for any operation.  The advantages far exceed all other possible gains.  Improved genetics through use of proven AI sires is an added benefit.
  • There are extremely effective and proven technologies for use in synchronization and AI systems today.  The use and uptake of these tools remains limited – as an industry must improve adaption.

The symposium is also the launching grounds for the coming year’s approved beef cattle synchronization protocols, found here.

ABS offers expert knowledge to match synchronization systems to best fit your specific needs. You can confidently look to ABS Professionals to assist and help meet your operations’ needs at any herd size.  Contact ABS today to discuss options for your herd.